● Fractures of the limbs from being forcibly restrained.
● Failure to heal.
● Wound ulcer.
● Wound abscess.
● Urine infection.
● Scar neuroma.
● Painful intercourse.
● Acute trauma.
● Low self-esteem.
● Denial of sexuality and emphasis on reproductive.
● Genital phobia.
● Damage to other organs due to child struggling.
● Urinary Retention.
● Delayed wound healing.
● Scarring/Keloid formation.
● Pelvic Infection.
● Epidemoid cysts/Abscess.
● Infection including tetanus and other blood borne viruses.
Long term complications
● Chronic vaginal and pelvic infections which can lead to infertility.
● Difficulty passing urine due to the scar/ Urine tract infections.
● Painful and prolonged periods due to vaginal closure by the scar.
● Haemotocolpos: Vaginal closure due to scarring can lead to the impaired flow
of menstrual tract infection.
● Childbirth trauma - perineal or vaginal tear during delivery.
● Delay in progress in second stage of labour.
● Obstructed labour.
● Fetal hypoxia and/or stillbirth.
● Painful coitus.
● Infibulation cysts. These cysts are either sebaceous or dermoid cysts caused by the skin tissue becoming trapped
in the scar. They can vary in size but may be as large as a grapefruit and frequently become infected.
● Psychological problems (such as flash-back, anxiety and depression).